Kaspersky has presented analysis of open source Virtual Network Computing (VNC), which uncovered memory corruption vulnerabilities that have existed in a substantial number of projects for a very long time. The exploitation of some detected vulnerabilities could lead to remote code execution affecting the users of VNC systems, which amount to over 600,000 servers accessible from the global network alone, according to shodan.io. Considering the devices are only accessible within local networks, the real number of VNC installations is multi-fold.
VNC systems are used to provide remote access to one device from the other through the use of remote frame buffer (RFB) protocol. Due to its availability on multiple platforms and presence of multiple open source versions, VNC systems have become some of the most popular desktop sharing tools to date. They are actively used in automated industrial facilities enabling remote control of systems, with approximately 32% of industrial network computers having some form of remote administration tools – including VNC.
The prevalence level of such systems in general, and particularly vulnerable ones, is an especially significant issue for the industrial sector, whereas potential damages can bring significant losses through disruption of complex production processes.
Although these VNC projects were analysed previously by other researchers, it turned out not all vulnerabilities were then uncovered and patched. As a result, of the analysis by Kaspersky researchers, 37 CVE records marking various vulnerabilities were created. Vulnerabilities were found not only on the client, but also on the server-side of the system. Some of them can allow remote code execution, which in turn could allow a malicious actor to make arbitrary changes on the attacked systems. On a more positive note, many server-side vulnerabilities could only be exploited after password authentification and some servers do not allow to set up password-free access.
Pavel Cheremushkin, Kaspersky ICS CERT Vulnerability Researcher said: “I was surprised to see the simplicity of discovered vulnerabilities, especially considering their significant lifetime. This means that attackers could have noticed and taken advantage of the vulnerabilities a long time ago. Moreover, some classes of vulnerabilities are present in many open-source projects and remain there even after refactoring of the codebase, which included vulnerable code. We at Kaspersky believe it is important to systematically detect such multitudes of projects with inherited vulnerabilities, which is why we conduct research of such kind.”
Information on all of the discovered vulnerabilities has been passed on to the developers. Almost all developers contacted patched the vulnerabilities, with the exception of TightVNC, who do not support this product. The users of the latter should consider alternative VNC system options.
To address risks related to vulnerable VNC tools, Kaspersky experts recommend developers and VNC users to:
A copy of the report, VNC Vulnerability Research, is available on ICS CERT.
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Kaspersky Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (Kaspersky ICS CERT) is a global project launched by Kaspersky in 2016 to coordinate the efforts of automation system vendors, industrial facility owners and operators, and IT security researchers to protect industrial enterprises from cyberattacks. Kaspersky ICS CERT devotes its efforts primarily to identifying potential and existing threats that target industrial automation systems and the Industrial Internet of Things. Since its inception, the team identified over 240 critical vulnerabilities in products by major global ICS vendors. Kaspersky ICS CERT is an active member and partner of leading international organizations that develop recommendations on protecting industrial enterprises from cyberthreats. Learn more at ics-cert.kaspersky.com